Thursday, September 6, 2012

Fusarium Ear Rot and Fumonisons

Paul Vincelli, Extension Plant Pathologist, University of Kentucky

Figure 1. Typical symptoms of Fusarium ear and kernel rot.
Note whitish fungal growth.
 Usually damage from Fusarium ear rot affects
scattered kernels or groups of kernels, as shown here.

The content of this article previously occurred in the Kentucky Pest News, number 1315.

Pre-harvest contamination of corn with fumonisins is a possibility in some lots of this year’s Kentucky corn crop. Fumonisins are a family of mycotoxins produced by the fungus that causes Fusarium ear rot. These natural toxins have the potential to cause lethal diseases of horses and swine (the diseases are equine luekoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary edema, respectively). Pre-harvest contamination of corn by fumonisins is most often associated with drought stress at the silking stage, a stress that occurred widely in Kentucky and beyond.



Symptoms of Fusarium kernel rot usually occur scattered throughout the ear on individual kernels or groups of kernels. Kernels affected by Fusarium kernel rot often exhibit salmon-pink to reddish discoloration on uninjured kernel caps. The rot is often associated with kernel injury, although unwounded kernels can be affected.

Once symptoms develop, if there is moisture under the shuck, the fungus can continue to spread and form a heavy cottony fungal growth that can consume the entire ear. Maturing ears which point upright during a heavy rain, would be at risk of extensive rotting.

It is advisable to scout corn fields for evidence of Fusarium ear rot, by walking fields and peeling the shuck of a sample of ears. Fields with moderate to high levels of Fusarium ear rot should be considered for harvest at 25-27% moisture content and drying to below 15% within a day or two of harvest.

Unfortunately, it is difficult to say how much Fusarium ear rot is too much in a given field, since mycotoxin levels in grain often don’t correlate well to amounts of kernel rot. However, if 2-5% or more of the ears have symptoms like those figures provided in this article, that would probably justify a quick harvest/dry-down. A dry-down may be especially justified for lots destined for food use, just from the quality-control standpoint.

While scouting for Fusarium ear rot, also look for olive-green mold typical of Aspergillus ear rot, especially on knolls of hills or other droughty areas. Aspergillus ear rot can result in aflatoxin contamination (see article from last week). This ear rot is most likely when corn is subject to severe drought stress during grain fill.

Questionable lots of corn should be tested for mycotoxins before feeding, especially to sensitive animals.

Producers should be aware that fumonisins can often be found at higher concentrations in injured and broken kernels than in sound kernels. Producers who clean their corn are advised not to feed screenings to livestock, since these pose the greatest risk. Many of the cases of poisonings of horses and swine from fumonisins in the Midwest result from feeding of screenings to livestock.
Sources of Additional Information
More information on fumonisin is available in the UK Extension publication ID-121, Fumonisin, Vomitoxin, and Other Mycotoxins in Corn Produced by Fusarium Fungi, available at http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id121/id121.pdf.

More information on aflatoxins is available in the publication ID-59, Aflatoxins in Corn, at http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/id/id59/id59.pdf.

Some of the laboratories where mycotoxin testing is performed include those listed in: http://www.ca.uky.edu/agcollege/plantpathology/ext_files/PPFShtml/PPFS-MISC-1.pdf.

Commercially available rapid test kits for mycotoxin testing are listed at: http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/fgis/tech-servsup/metheqp/testkits.pdf.



Figure 2. Fusarium kernel rot at ear tip. Note white fungal growth. Also note association with insect injury.


Figure 3. Fusarium ear and kernel rot.  This rot normally doesn't progress from the base of the ear, but it is possible, as shown here.



13 comments:

  1. It’s amazing, looking at the time and effort you put into your blog and detailed information you provide. I'll bookmark your blog and visit it weekly for your new posts. best place to buy steroids online

    ReplyDelete
  2. This is a good post. This post gives truly quality information. I’m definitely going to look into it. Really very useful tips are provided here. Thank you so much. Keep up the good works.crystalapartment |

    neveschambers |

    aikosolutions |

    lewishickey |

    stadiumcreative |

    salsagrande |

    butlerbag |

    thewatchavenue |

    artofbrand |

    bowdennursery |

    ReplyDelete
  3. http://www.burbagssale2014.com/ Burberry Outlet
    http://www.airmaxshoesfactory.com/ Air Max Shoes
    http://www.coachblackfriday2014.com/ Coach Black Friday
    http://www.coach-storeoutletonline.com/ Coach Black Friday
    http://www.coachcoachoutlet.com/ Coach Cyber Monday
    http://www.coachxfactory.com/ Coach Factory
    http://www.coach-factoryoutletonline.net/ Coach Outlet Factory
    http://www.coach-outletonlineusa.com/ Coach Outlet USA
    http://www.coach-pursesfactory.com/ Coach Purses Factory
    http://www.coachpurseusa.com/ Coach Purses USA
    http://www.coach-storeoutlet.com/ Coach Store Outlet
    http://www.coach-pursesonline.com/ Coach Purses On Sale
    http://www.monsterbeatsbydres.com/ Monster Beats Outlet
    http://www.louis-vuittonblackfriday.com/ Louis Vuitton Outlet
    http://www.lv-guccishoesfactory.com/ Louis Vuitton Factory
    http://www.marcjacobsonsale.com/ Marc Jacobs On Sale
    http://www.mcmworldwides.com/ MCM Outlet
    http://www.mcmoutlet-jp.com/ MCM 店铺
    http://www.oakleysunglassesfactory.com/ cheap oakley sunglasses
    http://www.michaelkorsmas.com/ Michael Kors Outlet
    http://www.michaelkors.so/ Michael Kors Outlet
    http://www.michaelkorsfactory-store.com/ Michael Kors Factory
    http://www.michaelkorsoutletr.com/ Michael Kors Outlet
    http://www.michael-korsfactoryonline.com/ Michael Kors Factory Online
    http://www.newcoachfactoryoutlet.com/ Coach Factory Outlet
    http://www.north-faceoutletonlines.net/ North Face Outlet Online
    http://www.polo-outletstore.com/ Polo Outlet Store
    http://www.ralph-laurenhome.com/ Ralph Lauren UK
    http://www.saclongchamppairs.com/ Sac Longchamp Pairs
    http://www.tcoachoutletonline.com/ Coach Outlet Online
    http://www.the-coachfactoryoutlet.com/ Coach Factory Oultet
    http://www.barbour-jacketsoutlet.com/ Barbour Jackets Outlet Online
    http://www.canada-gooser.com/ Canada Goose Outlet
    http://www.guccishoesuk-2014.com/ Gucci Outlet Online
    http://www.michaelkorsstates.com/ Michael Kors Outlet
    http://www.moncler-clearance.com/ Moncler Clearance
    http://www.moncler-jacketsoutletonline.com/ Moncler Jackets Outlet Online
    http://www.northsclearance.com/ North Clearace Outlet
    http://www.polo-ralphlaurenonline.com/ Polo Ralph Lauren Outlet Online
    http://www.woolrich-clearance.com/ Woolrich Clearance
    http://www.cvshopfactory.com/ shop.coachfactory.com
    http://www.mksfactoryoutlet.com/ Michael Kors Factory Outlet
    http://www.zxcoachoutlet.com/ Coach Outlet Online USA
    http://www.thebeatsbydre.net/ Beats by Dre
    http://www.superbagsmarket.com/
    http://www.newoutletonlinemall.com/ Coach Purses Outlet Online
    http://www.clickmichaelkors.com/ Michael Kors USA

    ReplyDelete
  4. nike shoes, Cheap Jordans,Cheap Jordan Shoes,Cheap Air Max,Cheap Free Run Shoes,nike shoes,nike outlet,nike factory,nike store,nike factory outlet,nike outlet store,cheap nike shoes,nike sneakers, toms outlet, toms outlet,tom shoes,toms shoes outlet,tom shoes,toms wedges,cheap toms,toms.com, air jordan, air jordan,jordan shoes,cheap jordans,air jordans,jordan retro,air jordan shoes,jordans,jordan 11,jordan xx9,jordan 6,new jordans,retro jordans,jordan retro 11,jordan 5,air jordan 11,jordans for sale,jordan 4,jordan 1,jordan future,jordan 3,jordan 12,michael jordan shoes,air jordan retro, cheap jordans, cheap jordans,cheap jordan shoes,cheap jordan,cheap jordans for sale,jordans for cheap,jordan shoes,jordans,air jordan,jordan retro,jordan 11,jordan xx9,jordan 6,new jordans,air jordans,retro jordans,jordan retro 11,jordan 5,air jordan 11,jordans for sale,jordan 4,jordan 1,jordan future,jordan 3,jordan 12,michael jordan shoes,air jordan shoes,air jordan retro, jordan retro, jordan retro,jordan shoes,air jordan,air jordans,retro jordans,air jordan retro,jordans,jordan 11,jordan xx9,jordan 6,new jordans,cheap jordans,jordan retro 11,jordan 5,air jordan 11,jordans for sale,jordan 4,jordan 1,jordan future,jordan 3,jordan 12,michael jordan shoes,air jordan shoes, air max 90, air max 90,nike air max 90,air max 95,air max 2014,air max 2013,air max 1,nike air max,air max,nike air max 2014,airmax,nike air max 2013, air max 95, air max 95,nike air max 95,air max 90,nike air max 90,air max 2013,nike air max,air max,air max 2014,nike air max 2014,airmax,nike air max 2013, nike free 5.0, nike free 5.0, nike free trainer 5.0,nike free run 5.0,free running 2,nike free run,nike free,free running,nike running shoes,nike free trainer,free runs,free run 5.0, omega watches, omega watches,omega watch,replica watches,rolex watches,replica omega watches,rolex,watches for men,watches for women,rolex watches for sale,rolex replica,rolex watch,cartier watches,rolex submariner,fake rolex,rolex replica watches,replica rolex, ralph lauren outlet, ralph lauren outlet,ralph lauren outlet online,polo ralph lauren outlet,polo ralph lauren outlet online,polo ralph lauren,ralph lauren,polo ralph,polo shirts,ralphlauren.com,polo outlet,ralph lauren polo, oakley sunglass, swarovski crystal

    ReplyDelete
  5. oakley sunglasses,cheap oakley,cheap oakley sunglasses,oakley sunglasses cheap,oakley outlet,oakley sunglasses outlet,oakley vault,oakleys,oakley.com,sunglasses outlet,cheap sunglasses,oakley prescription glasses,fake oakleys,oakley glasses,oakley store,fake oakley,oakley sale,cheap oakleys,discount oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, Ray Ban Sunglasses,Ray Ban Outlet,Ray Ban Sale,Cheap Ray Bans,Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses,ray ban sunglasses outlet,ray ban,rayban,ray bans,ray-ban,raybans,ray ban wayfarer,ray-ban sunglasses,raybans.com,rayban sunglasses,cheap ray ban, burberry, burberry,burberry outlet,burberry outlet online,burberry factory outlet,burberry sale,burberry handbags, chanel bags, chanel bags,chanel handbags,chanel sunglasses,chanel outlet,chanel purses,chanel handbags official site, coach outlet store, coach outlet,coach outlet store,coach outlet store online,coach outlet stores,coach factory outlet,coach factory,coach factory online,coach factory outlet online,coach outlet online, chaussures louboutin, louboutin,louboutin pas cher,christian louboutin,louboutin chaussures,louboutin soldes,chaussure louboutin,chaussures louboutin,chaussure louboutin pas cher,louboutin france, sac michael kors, michael kors,sac michael kors,michael kors sac,michael kors pas cher,sac michael kors pas cher,michael kors france, north face outlet, north face outlet,the north face,north face,the north face outlet,north face jackets,north face jackets clearance,northface, yoga pants, yoga pants,lululemon,lululemon outlet,lululemon athletica,lululemon addict,lulu lemon,lulu.com,lululemon.com, beats by dre, beats by dre,beats headphones,beats audio,beats by dr dre,beats by dre headphones,dr dre,dre beats,beats by dr,dr dre beats,dre headphones,beats by dr. dre,cheap beats, ferragamo, ferragamo,salvatore ferragamo,ferragamo shoes,ferragamo outlet,salvatore ferragamo outlet,ferragamo belts,ferragamo belt,ferragamo outlet, nike blazer, nike blazer,blazer nike,nike blazer pas cher,Chaussures Nike Blazer,Nike Blazer Femme, nike air force, swarovski

    ReplyDelete