Tuesday, July 14, 2015

Crops Damaged in Heavy Storms

Chad Lee, Extension Professor and Agronomist, University of Kentucky

Hail damage to corn in blister stage.
Credit: Tyler Reynolds, Farmer.
(More images added July 17, 2015) 

Heavy rains and winds occurred the July 13 and 14, 2015. Farmers, county agents and students submitted images of the damage that resulted. Each image contains a short caption to identify the issue. Several days are needed before we can fully determine crop recovery and the extent of the damage. More images will be added to this post as they are submitted.

1. Hail Damage. Hail was reported in central Kentucky this morning. Corn in this field was at the blister stage. Corn was just exiting it's most sensitive period to hail damage. The upper leaves are shredded, but most are still attached. If these leaves remain - and we'll know that in a few days - then yield losses could as small as 10%. See this publication for assessing hail damage in corn. See this Nebraska publication on hail damage in soybean
Most leaves are attached, just shredded by hail.
Leaves below ears are in decent shape.
Minimal yield loss expected.
Credit: Tyler Reynolds, Farmer.
Gray leaf spot on lower leaves.
Disease was here before the hail.
Image credit: Pat Hardesty,
Taylor County Extension.
Hail killed about 2 kernels on lower part of ear.
Credit: Pat Hardesty, Taylor County Extension
Very little leaf material is on the soil.
Even though leaves were shredded, most are still attached.
Attached leaves can still produce photosynthates.
Credit: Chad Lee

Leaves below the ears are largely intact.
While leaf loss "looks" like 30% or more, actual
leaf loss is closer to 5 or 10%. Credit: Chad Lee
Soybeans with tops broken by hail. Leaf area is still excellent.
Yield loss should be minimal. Credit: Chad Lee
Soybeans at R2 with tops broken by hail.
Credit: Chad Lee

2. Green Snap in Corn. The edge of a corn field on article by Bob Nielsen about green snap or this article by Peter Thomison about green snap.

the university farm in Fayette County had some green snap occur yesterday. The stalks broke at the nodes. Most of these plants broke at a node below the dominant ear, essentially killing the affected plants. Green snap was low for the entire field and yield losses are minimal. Green snap occurs for several reasons, and is often the result of a combination of factors: fertilizers applied, genetics, growth stages, fast growing conditions and strong winds.The video shows graduate student, Julie Baniszewski, checking corn stalks for their strength. As she pushes the stalk over, you hear and see the break or "snap"
Nearly 100% defoliation on R1 soybeans.
About 20 to 25% expected yield loss.
Credit: Pat Hardesty, Taylor County Extension

Nearly 100% defoliation on R1 soybeans.
About 20 to 25% expected yield loss.
Credit: Pat Hardesty, Taylor County Extension
at the node. Winds had to apply a similar force to cause this on other plants. Check out this
Green snap on corn. No yield from these plants.
Credit: Julie Baniszewski, UK Ag grad student.
Green snap on corn at edge of field.
Small area of the whole field was damaged.
Minimal yield losses overall.
Credit: Julie Baniszewski, UK Ag grad student.
Stalks broken at the node (green snap).
This plant is broken below the ear.
The plant is dead. No yield.
Credit: Julie Baniszewski, UK Ag grad student.
3. Flooded Plants. Soybeans are under water. The water needs to recede in about 24 to 48 hours for the plants to survive. If the plants survive and air gets to the roots, then the plants can recover. They likely be behind in development compared with other plants that were not submerged.

Corn was under water for at least 24 hours. The length of time combined with the hot temperatures likely killed the whole field of corn. It is also at risk for toxins and probably is not worth trying to salvage as silage.

See this publication on flood damage corn
Soybeans flooded out in Rowan County.
The water needs to recede in about 24 or 48 hours
for the plants to survive.
Credit: Bob Marsh, Rowan County Extension.
Flooded corn. Water was above the ear for over 24 hours.
We expect this field to be a complete lost. Credit: Chad Lee

Water was over this corn for at least 24 hours. Credit: Chad Lee
4. Deer Damage Deer damage is a massive issue in many areas of Kentucky. The deer have plenty of shelter with forests, running room in pastures and hayfields and running water from streams and creeks. Most of our corn fields are in close proximity to all of these. Perfect for deer.

Deer damage to corn in one of our research plots.
Credit: Dave Brandon.

5. Tobacco and Wet Feet. Yes, this is a grains blog, but we do grow tobacco in Kentucky. According to our tobacco experts, the plant does not like wet soils.
Tobacco in very wet soils. Plants are stunted.
Credit: Carol Hinton, Breckinridge County.

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